WHAT ARE PILES OR HEMORRHOIDS?

Piles are hemorrhoids that become inflamed.The size of piles can vary and are found inside or outside the anus.Half the world population are affected by piles, usually before the age of 50. Around 10% of patients who go and see their doctor about piles, require surgical treatment.Piles are often not serious and go away on their own.Internal hemorrhoids are into four grades. External hemorrhoids are called perianal hematoma but can be extensions of internal piles. Piles occur due to chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, lifting heavy weights, pregnancy or straining when passing a stool. A doctor can usually diagnose piles rapidly on examination.Early grade pies may be treated with medicine for piles but grades 3 or 4 hemorrhoids, surgery may be necessary. In the majority of cases, piles are effectively treated with over-the-counter medications, a good fluid intake, and by following a diet high in fiber. In severe cases, the piles may have to be surgically removed. About 10% of patients who go and see their doctorabout piles eventually require surgical intervention.

WHAT CAUSES HEMORRHOIDS/PILES?

Piles  swelling occurs when there is an increase in the pressure in the small vessels that make up the hemorrhoid causing them to swell and engorge with blood. This causes them to increase in size leading to symptoms. Increased pressure may be caused by a variety of factors:

Low fiber diet and smaller caliber stool causes a person to strain when having a bowel movement, increasing the pressure within the blood vessels.

Pregnancy is associated with hemorrhoid swelling and is likely due to increased pressure of the enlarged uterus on the rectum and anus. In addition, hormonal changes with pregnancy may weaken the muscles that support the rectum and anus.

Prolonged sitting on the toilet may increase pressure within the hemorrhoid blood vessels

Obesity

Diarrhea, both acute and chronic

Colon cancer

Previous rectal surgery

Hemorrhoid swelling occurs when there is an increase in the pressure in the small vessels that make up the hemorrhoid causing them to swell and engorge with blood. This causes them to increase in size leading to symptoms. Increased pressure may be caused by a variety of factors:

SYMPTOMS

A hard lump may be felt around the anus. It consists of coagulated blood, which can be painful. After going to the toilet, a feeling that the bowels are still full

Bright red blood after a bowel movement

Itchiness around the anus

Mucus discharge when emptying the bowels

Pain while defecating

The area around the anus may be red and sore

A lump in or around your anus

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